Unit 2 (Revised)

By , March 21, 2017 12:50 pm

Unit 2: 1650-1789

What was worth fighting for?


1. Tues. Mar. 19, Wed. Mar. 20, Thurs. Mar. 21, Fri. Mar. 22: Enlightenment


Recommended textbook pages: 83, 146-150

Tuesday: Jean Calas anecdote – from this story, try to grasp the main concepts of the Enlightenment and what enlightened philosophes thought was worth fighting for.

Jean Calas being broken


Locke: read this for context – Locke_handout_shortened


CHY4U_Enlightenment_Mar_2019 (contains enlightened characteristics)

Course Culminating Activity: students have now chosen their essay topic. They must begin the research process. Please see CCA step 1 from the CHY4U menu.  It has all the tips, the assignment, the sample, the suggested sources, etc. Step 1 (notes and worksheet) is due on Mon. April 1. Students must find time to do research outside of class time. 

Wednesday to Friday:

PSD Groupings (12 documents)

Political: John Locke, Two Treatises on Government; Thomas Paine, Common Sense; Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence

Common Sense by Thomas Paine


What is Paine’s criticism of constitutional monarchy?

In what way did Jefferson ‘plagiarize’ Locke?


English: Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal; Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano

The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano


Context for Jonathan Swift (some background on the British in Ireland)


Swift was prompted to write by the issue of overpopulation of Ireland. However, he has other things in mind. How does Swift satirize British control over Ireland?

What does Equiano hope the British government will do?



French: Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract; Denis Diderot, Definition of Intolerance; Voltaire, Superstition

The statue of Voltaire on the internal face of the Louvre in Paris


To Rousseau, what is the best kind of life? And, if this can’t be lived, what is the best way to preserve as many of the original liberties as possible?

Diderot repeats the word ‘impious’ (blasphemous – against religion) over and over. Why is he using this religious word against the Catholic Church?

What is Voltaire’s big problem with superstition?


Rulers (Enlightened Despots): Catherine the Great, Proposals for a New Law Code, 1767; Frederick the Great, Essay on the Forms of Government

Coronation of Catherine II


Though considered an enlightened despot, Frederick held almost all the power in Prussia. What does he consider to be the ideal relationship between the ruler and the state?

Catherine spends a lot of time arguing why absolute monarchy is suitable for Russia. How does she justify it?


Women: Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792; Juana Ines de La Cruz, Respuesta a Sor Filotea de la Cruz, 1692

Skills: inquiry questions, thesis development, PSD analysis (including annotating)



Under what condition does Wollstonecraft believe society will improve?

What does De La Cruz use Biblical examples to show?


HW: finish annotating any enlightened any PSDs you haven’t read yet. Keep working on your CCA research and note-taking.



Today you will be doing an in-role writing activity. Diderot is hiring writers for his Encyclopedie. You will write about various topics (for his encyclopedia) in the style of Diderot and he will choose if he’ll hire you.


Locke, Spanish Inquisition, Copernicus, Galileo, Luther, Wollstonecraft


  1. In Diderot’s style
  2. Biased (toward the enlightenment values)
  3. Highlights enlightened values in your topic (or lack thereof)


After this, we attempted to rank all of the PSDs using various criteria:

  1. use of enlightened ideas
  2. impact on society
  3. amount of satire/sarcasm



2. Mon. Mar. 25, Tues. Mar. 26, Wed. Mar. 27: Slavery and Resistance 



Vicissitudes from Jason deCaires Taylor’s website

Minds On: What is the purpose of art? This question has relevance for the test at the end of unit 2.

Skills: historical perspective, inquiry questions

terminology: slave vs. enslaved person


Mon.: Minds On: Slave Trade interactive map, reading by Ms. G from The Slave Ship

Students wrote good, curious, deep inquiry questions about the interactive slave trade map.

CHY4U_Slave_Trade_2019 (PPT) – overview of the how the slave trade worked, especially the idea of triangular trade. Triangular trade can also be found in the textbook on page 106.

Triangular trade


HW: take notes on methods of resistance by enslaved persons from pages 108 to 111 in the textbook.


Tues.: Minds On: Back to your earlier definition of what the word “fight” means in “what is worth fighting for?” Now we are adding the idea of resistance. What is the difference between fighting and resisting?

Activity: using pages 108-111 in textbook – take the methods of resistance to slavery  and put them into categories (such as physical).

We began the Wed. activity because tomorrow is a super-shortened day. So see below.

Websites for your interest:

Ted  Talk (drumming banned – for your interest only)

Slave Resistance at Work (Port Cities Bristol – just FYI)


Wed.: Minds On: What is the purpose of a law code?

possible answers: keep order, restrict people, give people rights

Image result

Code Noir, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_Noir



  1. Fill in CHY 4U Abolitionism Code Noir chart

Note: the preamble says that God approves of these laws. Therefore, it’s as if God was saying to the enslaved people of the French colonies that they MUST obey the laws in the Code Noir.


2. How enlightened was Code Noir? (0-10)

3. How generous did the French government think the code was? (0-10)

4. Ultimately, in the unit so far, how enlightened is the enlightenment? Think about the paradox or the gap between ideas and reality. Students wrote sharp, one-sentence answers.

HW: finish Code Noir worksheet if not completed in class. Work on CCA step 1. It is due Mon. April 1.


3. Thurs. Mar. 28 and Fri. Mar. 29: Innovation and Origins of Industrialization (and Haiti)

An engraving of a Spinning Jenny by T. E. Nicholson (1835)

Spinning jenny: http://spartacus-educational.com/TEXjenny.htm


RP collapse

Rana Plaza collapse 2013, Bangladesh, https://cleanclothes.org/safety/ranaplaza


Minds On: How is society affected by the pace of technological change?

Skill: Progress and decline – the inverse relationship between groups

Fill in the chart: Early Industrialization Activity – who was helped and who was hurt by each innovation?

Progress vocabulary: benefit, evolve, develop, advance, improve, innovate, change…

Decline vocabulary: regress, recess, downfall, end, collapse, slide, devolve, suffer …

Groups that progressed and declined the most as new technologies arrived on the scene – debates. Inverse relationships between groups.


 Headlines  – The more things change the more they stay the same?

Quebec’s Secular Bill: any public official is banned from wearing any religious symbols (CBC)

Job Loss from AI: (Forbes)

Cotton farming today: cotton (End Uzbek Cotton Crimes)




Toussaint L’Ouverture


Le Marron Inconnu (the unknown slave, Port au Prince, Haiti, 1967)


Haitian Revolutions context:

CHY4U Social Hierarchy in StDomingue,


Read about Toussaint L’Ouverture and the rebellions in St. Domingue/Haiti (textbook pages 195-197).

Visit Haitian Revolution (Black Past) or The Haitian  Revolution  (PBS – Africans in America) if you want short overviews of the Haitian Revolutions.

CCA background notes and current event/historical context worksheet due Monday.


4. Mon. April 1, Tues. April 2, Wed. April 3: Consequences of Exploration and Colonization  – 7 Years War

CCA Step 1 due today!

Map showing participants in the Seven Years Wars. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Years%27_War


Skills: HTC – causes and consequences  (intended and unintended, direct, indirect, long-term, medium-term, short-term), historical perspectives

Monday and Tuesday:

key terms:

  • mercantilism (the economic policy in which countries seek to export rather than import, protect their own markets and industries, and make profit from their colonies)
  • global conflict

Annotate PSDs 1 to 7 indicating cause or consequence (or both) and what kind: intended or unintended, direct or indirect, long-term, medium-term or short-term.


Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, oil on canvas (Francis Hayman, c. 1762)

Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, oil on canvas (by Francis Hayman, c. 1762, a British painter). How does this image show the British perspective on the battle? Does it reflect or challenge its time?

British Victory at Plassey in Bengal, June 23, 1757




The Death of General Wolfe, by Benjamin West, portrays an almost Christ-like martyr’s death, painted 1770. Interestingly, West was born in the then-British colony of Pennsylvania. However, he travelled to England in 1763 and remained there.


How does this image portray the British perspective? Does it reflect or challenge its times?


We practiced making a timeline with attitude out of the basic dates from the Seven Years War: Seven_Years_War_Timeline    using 4 different perspectives: see below for assignment


Quebec Act Cartoon


4b. Timeline with Attitude (due on Wed. April 10)

CHY4U_Unit2_Timeline_with_Attitude_sem2_18-19 (assignment and rubric)

Timeline-with-Attitude-Sample_2019 (Ms. G’s incomplete sample from unit 1 topics). Don’t forget the turning point paragraph.  


Process Steps:

  1. pick your perspective.
  2. pick 6 events from the unit (1650-1789) that are relevant to your perspective
  3. decide where to place each event on the scale of progress or decline (+3 to -3)
  4. write a 2-4 sentence explanation of how each event shows your perspective and the score you gave it
  5. find an image to accompany each event (plus citation)
  6. proofread
  7. choose an event from  your timeline that will be the subject of your turning point paragraph
  8. write paragraph explaining how this event shows a change in the pace and/or direction of change. (template above)


electronic – students usually use Prezi

by hand

Suggested  Perspectives:

  1. Enslaved peoples
  2. Factory workers
  3. Skilled workers
  4. Factory owners
  5. Consumers
  6. Women
  7. Colonists
  8. Indigenous peoples
  9. Enlightened philosophes
  10. Catholic Church officials
  11. Rulers (law writers)
  12. Plantation owners
  13. Merchants (East India Company people)
  14. Inventors
  15. British soldiers
  16. French soldiers
  17. Spanish soldiers



5. Thurs. April 4, Fri. April 5: Absolutism and Cultural Exchanges



Thursday: Louis XIV and Absolutism

Louis XIV


Minds On: As citizens who are we loyal to? Who are our leaders responsible to?

Characteristics of absolutism:

  • Centralized absolutism replaced decentralized feudalism (where nobles used to have power and the king was less powerful).
  • Decisions came from one place (palace) and from one source of power (Louis).
  • The state as an entity started to develop.
  • Referred back to the Roman Empire as an example of stability and order.
  • Established rules of behaviour and fixed standards.
  • Its goal was order and control.
  • Often relied on the theory of divine right of kings (God gives the king power to rule).

These may be found in these areas (textbook 75-78):

  • intendants (civil servants) + religion (page 75-76)
  • economy + armed forces (page 76)
  • social system (page 77-78)
  • Versailles (page 77)

Louis XIV’s centralizing actions: 

nobles – they lost their power but gained some privileges, such as living at Versailles and being allowed to take part in rituals that flattered and served Louis. One huge privilege they had was that they didn’t pay taxes. Therefore, France was much more centralized now and the nation-state (France) became a much stronger entity. In the Middle Ages (feudal times) things were decentralized because the nobles each controlled their own areas. There was a king but he wasn’t as powerful.

religion – there had been some religious freedom for the Huguenots (French Protestants) with the Edict of Nantes that had existed since 1598. However, Louis revoked (cancelled) it. Therefore, he urged more religious conformity. Unintentionally, this backfired against France because many Huguenots left France and went to enemy states such as England and Holland. They took their powerful industries with them, enriching other countries.

civil servants – Louis created a group of government workers called intendants – they collected taxes in the regions and gave the money to Louis. Therefore, the nobles no longer collected taxes in their home region (another loss of their power).

government – Louis famously said: l’etat, c’est moi! I am the state. The government ministers (of departments such as war, economy) were responsible only to him. This shows a highly centralized government.

Versailles – expansion and renovation of the chateau outside of Paris took up between 3 and 10% of the yearly state budget. Up to 10 000 people might have lived there, including the king and his family, some of the nobles and their families, the ministers and the court (advisors, nobles, etc.) Government was centralized at Versailles. However, an unintended effect would be the big drain on the budget. Eventually, France went bankrupt (not at this exact time).

army – France fought many wars to expand its territory. Louis made sure the army had the newest weapons, the soldiers wore the same uniforms, and they were paid according to a designated pay scale (not randomly). All of this shows centralization and conformity.





Evidence of Louis XIV Absolutism (groups added their info here)

Chateau de Versailles

video: expansion of the chateau and how it reflected Louis’s vision of absolutism.


Friday: Peter the Great – Absolutism and Westernization

Peter I


Peter_the_Great_AH (Miss Hepburn’s PPT)

Peter the Great Decrees – what questions do you have? How much power did a ruler have to have to be able to make these laws? Which way did Peter want Russia to face? What is the significance of beards in Russian culture? How would nobles have felt about the Table of Ranks?

Not Done: Turquioserie and Chinoiserie worksheets to be finished after your Timeline with Attitude is handed in.


7. Mon. April 8: Review for test (timeline with attitude due on Wednesday) 

please print turning point paragraph and send electronic link. Don’t forget to bring your rubric.

8. Tues. April 9: Unit test


Part 1: enlightened quotes – identify the author and state which enlightened characteristic each relates to. Then briefly explain how it shows that characteristic (no repetition of characteristics allowed). knowledge 

Part 2: global relationships essay outline (no intro or conclusion) based on a given thesis statement and incorporating 4 pieces of detailed historical evidence and change/cause-consequence arguments.   application


To earn one checkmark you must use historical detail (specific, precise information from the unit, not general ideas). You must answer the question directly – don’t dance around the question. Have definite opinions and support them. There isn’t only one correct answer per question so feel free to express your own opinions that are backed up by historical proof! I mark in increments of ¼ checkmarks.

0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.00

These may be of use to you:

Quote_deindustrialization_India (impact of British industrialization on Bengal)

“Printed cotton gown of English-made cloth, lined with linen, hand-sewn, c. 1785, Victoria and
Albert Museum” from From Indian to British Luxury Cotton Goods, Accessed April 1, 2019,


“Indian painted petticoat, c. 1725, textile made on the Coromandel Coast, India, Victoria and Albert Museum.” as above.


The See Saw  – Balance is Your Goal!!!


* detailed                                                     * explained

* specific/historical                                   * links to thesis

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