Unit 2 (2020)

By , March 21, 2017 12:50 pm

Unit 2: 1650-1789

What was worth fighting for?

CHY4U_Unit2_Handouts_2020 (PDF of the unit package)

Please check back frequently as Ms. G is constantly updating dates as developments occur.


1. Mon. Mar. 9, Tues. Mar. 10, Wed. Mar. 11, Thurs. Mar. 12: Enlightenment


Recommended textbook pages: 83, 146-150

Monday: Jean Calas anecdote – from this story, try to grasp the main concepts of the Enlightenment and what enlightened philosophes thought was worth fighting for.

Jean Calas being broken


Locke: read this for context – Locke_handout_shortened

CHY4U_Enlightenment_Mar_2020  (contains list of enlightened characteristics)

Course Culminating Activity: students have now chosen their essay topic. They must begin the research process. Please see CCA step 1 from the CHY4U menu.  It has all the tips, the assignment, the sample, the suggested sources, etc. Step 1 (notes and worksheet) is due on Mon. March 30. Students must find time to do research outside of class time. 


Tuesday and Wednesday:


PSD Groupings (9 documents) – annotate

Skills: inquiry questions, thesis development, PSD analysis (including annotating)

Political: John Locke, Two Treatises on Government; Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence


In what way did Jefferson ‘plagiarize’ Locke?


English: Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal; Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792;

The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano

Context for Jonathan Swift (some background on the British in Ireland)


Swift was prompted to write by the issue of overpopulation of Ireland. However, he had other things in mind. How did Swift satirize British control over Ireland?

What did Equiano hope the British government would do?

Under what condition did Wollstonecraft believe society would improve?


French: Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract; Denis Diderot, Definition of Intolerance; Voltaire, Superstition

The statue of Voltaire on the internal face of the Louvre in Paris


To Rousseau, what is the best kind of life? And, if this can’t be lived, what is the best way to preserve as many of the original liberties as possible?

Diderot repeats the word ‘impious’ (blasphemous – against religion) over and over. Why is he using this religious word against the Catholic Church?

What is Voltaire’s big problem with superstition?


Rulers (Enlightened Despots): Catherine the Great, Proposals for a New Law Code, 1767; Frederick the Great, Essay on the Forms of Government

Coronation of Catherine II


Though considered an enlightened despot, Frederick held almost all the power in Prussia. What does he consider to be the ideal relationship between the ruler and the state?

Catherine spends a lot of time arguing why absolute monarchy is suitable for Russia. How does she justify it?


HW: finish annotating any enlightened any PSDs you haven’t read yet. Keep working on your CCA research and note-taking.


Practice making arguments. Read this and see how you can make it a little bit better by making a sharper topic sentence:

Denis Diderot was one of the main social critics of his time, particularly when it came to the abuses of the Roman Catholic Church. In an article from his multi-volume Encyclopedie called “Intolerance” Diderot portrayed the Catholic Church as hypocritical. In fact, he argued, the Church was intolerant. Diderot and other enlightened philosophes in France held a core belief in freedom of thought; as he said, “Conscience must be enlightened, not constrained.” Neither the state nor the Church should interfere with an individual’s right to his own beliefs and ideas. The problem with the Catholic Church was that it used pacifistic language such as love when in fact it used violent means to achieve its goals. According to Diderot, “Education, persuasion, and prayer, these are the only legitimate means of spreading the faith.” How hypocritical, he implied, was the Church for using violence, hatred, and sowing of division to spread Christianity. These two simple quotes portray Diderot as a hard-edged writer willing to speak his truth to power.


Here’s an interesting little tidbit on Diderot and Catherine – you decide if it made her enlightened???

Denis Diderot and Catherine the Great of Russia came together out of necessity. Diderot’s Encyclopedie was heavily censored by the Roman Catholic Church and the French government. The pope even threatened excommunication of purchasers of it. (World History, p. 449). At the time in the 1700s, France was still relatively feudal in its social structure, though people like Diderot from the upper middle classes had a certain amount of influence in intellectual circles. Diderot was so involved in the Enlightenment that he was chased by the police, spied on, and even had to sell his works to the Empress of Russia, Catherine the Great, in order to save them from government confiscation.  Catherine, seeing herself as an enlightened ruler, allowed him to retain the books and she paid him a yearly salary. He even went to visit her in Russia for six months in 1773 (Glencoe World History, p. 557). Catherine and Diderot: an likely pair but a duo who found mutual benefit in each other.


Thursday: Did western Europe have a monopoly on enlightenment?


How do Akbar and Suleiman compare?

What sites should you consult?


2. Fri. Mar. 13, Mon. Mar. 23, Tues. Mar. 24, Wed. Mar. 25: Slavery and Resistance 



Vicissitudes from Jason deCaires Taylor’s website

Minds On: What do you think this underwater sculpture is meant to represent?

Skills: historical perspective, inquiry questions

terminology: slave vs. enslaved person


Fri.: Minds On: Slave Trade interactive map, reading by Ms. G from The Slave Ship

Students came up with good, curious, deep inquiry questions about the interactive slave trade map.

CHY4U_Slave_Trade_2019 (PPT) – overview of the how the slave trade worked, especially the idea of triangular trade. Triangular trade can also be found in the textbook on page 106.

Triangular trade


HW: take notes on methods of resistance by enslaved persons from pages 108 to 111 in the textbook.


Have a great March Break!!! Stay safe and healthy. 

                                                                             – Ms. G


Hello everyone. Welcome to the new world of learning. I will continue to update the blog if you’d like to follow along. Please continue your CCA research. You may submit your work to the google classroom (code 5c42l35 if you haven’t joined). Please include photos of your hand-written notes.

Revised dates – Mon. March 30, Tues. March 31: Minds On: Back to your earlier definition of what the word “fight” means in “what is worth fighting for?” Now we are adding the idea of resistance. What is the difference between fighting and resisting? (please, really think about this difference). 

Activity: using pages 108-111 in textbook – take the methods of resistance to slavery  and put them into categories (such as physical, spiritual, etc.). Photos of pages below. 

Normally at this time Ms. G emphasizes how some historians used to dismiss things such as working slowly or breaking tools as evidence of the slaves’ laziness. Over time, historians have opened up their perspectives to recognize that the enslaved people were doing whatever they could to survive a brutal life, resist conditions imposed upon them and assert their humanity.

Websites for your interest:

Ted  Talk (drumming banned – for your interest only)

Slave Resistance at Work (Port Cities Bristol – just FYI)


Tues. March 31: Minds On: What is the purpose of a law code?

possible answers: keep order, restrict people, give people rights

Image result

Code Noir, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_Noir


Activity (answers may be shared with Ms. G to demonstrate your learning):

  1. Fill in CHY 4U Abolitionism Code Noir chart
  2. Use the PSD in the purple box on page 109 of the textbook (see photos above) – it is the actual Code Noir (excerpts).

Note: the preamble (intro) says that God approves of these laws. Therefore, it’s as if God was saying to the enslaved people of the French colonies that they MUST obey the laws in the Code Noir. Also note, this code applied to the French colonies only.

2. How enlightened was Code Noir? (0-10) Explain your rating.

3. How generous did the French government think the code was? (0-10) Explain your rating.

4. Ultimately, in the unit so far, how enlightened is the enlightenment? Think about the paradox or the gap between ideas and reality. Please write a sharp, concise yet precise two-sentence answer.


If you didn’t get a chance to join us on the Google Meet for Code Noir, here are a few things you can use for a self-check of your understanding. 

What do the articles in row 1 have in common? Why was religion such a big deal in this code? On the one hand, if a slave owner converted his slaves to Christianity, what is this admitting in terms of their humanity? On the other hand, if the slave owner teaches that Christianity says you’ll get into heaven if you’re obedient, how can this reinforce slavery?

What do the articles in row 2 have in common? Why was control of family such a big deal in this code? Was there any empathy? Does that make the code enlightened at all?

What do the articles in row 3 have in common? Why were there provisions for how slaves should be involved in the “justice” system? Was there actually justice for them?


HW: finish Code Noir worksheet and share answers. Work on CCA step 1. It is due Mon. March 30 (may be submitted to the google classroom (code 5c42l35) – please include photos of hand-written notes). See CCA Step 1 page and tips. 


3. Revised Dates: Wed. April 1 and Thurs. April 2: Innovation and Origins of Industrialization (and Haiti) – industrialization is a KEY topic

An engraving of a Spinning Jenny by T. E. Nicholson (1835)

Spinning jenny, one of the machines used in industrialization: http://spartacus-educational.com/TEXjenny.htm


RP collapse

Rana Plaza collapse 2013, Bangladesh, signalling the pitfalls of our industrialization. Rana Plaza was full of garment manufacturing workshops producing clothing for the western market and the building was obviously not safe for it. That’s what happens when companies want to make profit above all.  https://cleanclothes.org/safety/ranaplaza

Wed. April 1:

Minds On: How is society affected by the pace of technological change? Think about our own times: do you think we live in a time of fast-paced technological change? If so, what influence does it have on people’s lives, work, the economy, etc.?

Skill: Progress and decline – the inverse relationship between groups. Note that progress and decline are aspects of continuity and change.

Connection to the pandemic: This topic so closely parallels our world. Think of Trump’s way of dealing with 3M, a giant manufacturer of face masks; he is telling them to stop selling masks to Canada and Latin America. He is trying to protect the American market. However, since 3M is such a large, global company with factories and supply chains around the world, it’s not as simple as it seems to just produce for the national market. You will find in early industrialization Britain’s economic relationship with India will change as it wants to import raw cotton as opposed to cotton products manufactured in India.

Introduction to topic:

Industrialization began in Britain in the late 1700s. It began there, rather than elsewhere, for various reasons which are somewhat outside the scope of this activity. However, what’s crucial to know is that many people invested money in new technologies that would eventually power factories to produce a lot more than before. These new technologies pushed for more efficiency/productivity. The demand for goods was high because the population was growing.

Before the industrial revolution British society was largely rural and the economy was based on agriculture. Power came from wind, water, animals and humans. Some farming families also worked in what was called ‘cottage industries’, meaning they engaged in a small trade at home to supplement their farm income. For instance, they might spin wool from their sheep into yarn. A middle man would help them get the yarn to market or to a producer who’d turn it into something like clothes or blankets. But work was at home and followed the regular schedule of daily life on a farm.

Change came…

During the industrial revolution urban areas grew faster as people moved to live nearby their sources of employment, factories. The source of power eventually became coal and steam. Coal powered factories and mills where large numbers of workers gathered under one roof were new developments. Workers were now paid a wage.

The woolen industry had been in existence for a long time in Britain. However, cotton was becoming increasingly popular. Britain did not, of course, grow cotton – it grows in a warmer climate. But some of Britain’s colonies and trading partners did grow cotton. Thus one cannot separate the issues of colonies, slavery and industrialization. This will become very apparent as you make your way through the chart. So will the fact that certain types of workers benefited more than others. The world was changing and people’s lives were changing.

  1. Read Early Inventions of Industrialization first. It gives a lot of important background. Early_Industrialization Then, …

2. Fill in the chart: Early Industrialization Activity – who was helped and who was hurt by each innovation? The possible answers are indicated for you at the top of the activity. If you don’t have your paper booklet, you can find a PDF version of it at the top of the unit 2 page.

Progress vocabulary: benefit, evolve, develop, advance, improve, innovate, change…

Decline vocabulary: regress, recess, downfall, end, collapse, slide, devolve, suffer …



Please share your answers with Ms. G so she can see if you’re doing it right. Ms. G will be having a google meet on this topic on Fri. April 3 at 1:45 pm. Email if you’d like to be invited.

3. There is a list of websites at the bottom of the document (copied below).  They contain images related to early industrialization. Please visit some of the sites. If you have any uncertainties about the topic of early industrialization, the third document (oup) gives a fabulous overview of EVERYTHING. *It is not necessary to do this – just for our interest.


Explore some of the sites of early industrialization in England:



https://www.oup.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/58031/Oxford-Big-Ideas-Geography-History-9-ch5-Industrial-revolution.pdf (very thorough overview of industrialization)

http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/371 (world’s first iron bridge)

http://www.channel4.com/programmes/walking-through-history/on-demand/54892-002 (Tony Robinson’s Walking Through History – Derwent Valley)

FYI: Headlines  – The more things change the more they stay the same?

Job Loss from AI: (Forbes)

Cotton farming today: cotton (End Uzbek Cotton Crimes)


Thurs. April 2:

St. Domingue / Haiti: (this is not a mandatory topic though I invite you to check it out)

Toussaint L’Ouverture


Le Marron Inconnu (the unknown slave, Port au Prince, Haiti, 1967)

St. Domingue, the Caribbean island that brought the most wealth to the French Empire.

It may seem strange to jump from early industrialization to the Haitian Revolutions. However, it makes sense in terms of returning to the ideals of enlightenment and resistance to enslavement. As well, don’t forget that the Code Noir would have been the document that governed the lives of enslaved people in this French Caribbean colony.

To understand the Haitian Revolutions (yes, more than one revolution) context please read the two documents below and answer these questions on BIG ideas:

CHY4U Social Hierarchy in StDomingue,

  • where do you expect the major class conflicts to be?


  • why did three empires try to so hard to defeat St. Domingue/Haiti?
  • why were the Haitians able to prevail?


Then, to get more details, read about Toussaint L’Ouverture and the rebellions in St. Domingue/Haiti (textbook pages 195-197). Note that the origins of the first revolution (starting in 1791) are quite complicated and resulted in the freeing of the slaves. The second one (ending in 1804) was the fight for independence from France.

Visit Haitian Revolution (Black Past) or The Haitian  Revolution  (PBS – Africans in America) if you want short overviews of the Haitian Revolutions. There is a Crash Course History video (12 minutes) as well. In it there is some reference to the French Revolution (which we haven’t learned about yet) but you should be able to get the big picture without this fore-knowledge.

Wrap Up: to demonstrate your understanding of the Haitian Revolutions and how they fit into this unit (what is worth fighting for?), please create a small mind-map or word web that shows all the connections between unit topics/concepts/ideals and the Haitian Revolutions. Share with Ms. G. Google “how to make a mind map in google docs” for directions. Or, draw a mind-map and share a photo of it. * this is optional – just for your interest if you wish

HW: CCA notes and current event/historical context worksheet due  – please submit when done.


4. Revised Dates: Tues. April 7 and Wed. April 8: Consequences of Exploration and Colonization  – 7 Years War (this is an important topic. However, there are ways you can shorten it for yourself).  

CCA Step 1 due Mon. March 30! (Last day to submit is Mon. APril 20). Please see CCA Step 2 instructions.

Map showing participants in the Seven Years Wars. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Years%27_War


Skills: HTC – causes and consequences  (intended and unintended, direct, indirect, long-term, medium-term, short-term), historical perspectives

Tuesday and Wednesday:

key terms:

  • mercantilism (the economic policy in which countries seek to export rather than import, protect their own markets and industries, and make profit from their colonies)
    • think of it like a pie: at the time, people believed there was a limited supply of wealth. Each country had its own slice of the pie. The only way to increase the size of its slice of pie was to get it from another country, often through war

  • global conflict
    • thus, it should make sense that what began as a minor war in Europe (for reasons that are not even very important to us) became a global conflict about getting more pie for each country (empire)!!! These various conflicts lasted from 1756-1763.


Annotate PSDs 1 to 7 indicating cause or consequence (or both) and what kind: intended or unintended, direct or indirect, long-term, medium-term or short-term.

I’ve included some questions to help make sure you understand each document. Feel free to email me if you have questions about particular documents.

CHY4U_Unit2_Seven_Years_War_Timeline (fyi)


1 The state of the English colonies, 1755 from the Maryland Gazette, originally published in London’s Gentlemen’s Magazine

Remember, this is pre-American Revolution. Virginia is one of the 13 American colonies controlled by Britain. 

What are the advantages of Virginia in terms of agriculture, source of labour, government, education?

Who envies how awesome Virginia is? How does this relate to slices of the pie?

Cause or consequence of Seven Years War?


Painting: British victory at Plassey in Bengal, on June 23rd, 1757

Note: Bengal was an Indian state. The British East India Company was established to increase trade between Britain and India.

Who fought whom in this 1757 battle?

How did the role of the  British East India Company expand beyond trade after this battle?

Cause or consequence of Seven Years War?


The Battle of Quebec, 1759

Recall your Canadian history lessons from junior high: The French came to Quebec first. Then, as the British increased their power and territory in North America they wanted Quebec, too. Eventually, the French lost other territory in North America, too. Also note that the painting was made years after the event. 

Even though Wolfe (the British General) dies, how is he portrayed in the painting?

Whose slices of pie increase/decrease as a result of the Battle of Quebec?

Cause or consequence of Seven Years War?


Minavavana, a Chippewa chief, addressing trader Alexander Henry, as recorded by Henry, 1761

Note: Chippewa were one of many different indigenous peoples in North America in the 1700s. Indigenous peoples had diverse relationships with American colonists and the British and French in North America.

How many years before this letter had the English conquered the French?

In the beginning of the letter Minavavana suggests that Chippewa have been allies of _______________.

How does Minavavana suggest that, normally, good relations can be established after conflict?

Why did he make an exception this time?

Why would it be important for both indigenous people and the British or French to have each other as allies in North America?

Cause or consequence of Seven Years War?


The Attack of Manilla, October 1762

Note: Philippines was a Spanish colony. Spain was friendly with France, not Britain, at this time. 

How did Philippines go back and forth to different ‘possessors’? How does this reflect slices of the pie?

What was the key factor in Britain’s success in this sub-battle of the Seven Years’ War?

Cause or consequence of Seven Years War?


Royal Proclamation of 1763

Note: the British took control of French territorial possessions following the Battle of Quebec (1759). These territories were not just in Quebec, but also included part of the now-US, including the Ohio River Valley. In addition, recall that at the time of this proclamation (law), the British controlled the American colonies. Through this law the British hoped to improve relations between American colonists and indigenous people west of the Mississippi River. So they created a line, the proclamation line. *  this is a long document, you don’t have to read all of it

Lands west of the proclamation line were reserved for whom?

Who is forbidden to settle there or make any other use of the western lands?

Why would some American colonists be offended by this new British rule?

Why would the  British feel this was a fair law?

How does this Proclamation relate to slices of the pie?

Cause or consequence of Seven Years War?


The Quebec Act, 1774

Note: the Seven Years War, known as the French and Indian War in the American colonies, was already over (1763) by the time of the Quebec Act (1774). Also, it’s important to remember that Britain was a Protestant country whereas Quebec had been Catholic. Most, not all, American colonists were also Protestant.

What did this act grant to Catholics in Quebec?

Why would the Protestant British want to do this?

Which part of the act particularly worried American colonists? Why?

How does the cartoon demonstrate this feeling?

Cause or consequence of Seven Years War?


We will skip this activity April 2020:

Now that we have learned about the different events of the Seven Years’ War, we will practice putting them onto a Timeline with Attitude. [Remember, we did a timeline with attitude in unit 1 using different perspectives on the Japanese edicts against Christianity.]

This document may remind you of key dates/events for your timeline, though there are others from the PSDs: CHY4U_Unit2_Seven_Years_War_Timeline

Perspectives for Timeline with Attitude – Choose One

  1. British
  2. French
  3. Indian (South Asian)
  4. Native People
  5. American colonists

Instructions: pick one perspective. Create a timeline with attitude with at least 4 events on it. Make sure your scale is labeled from +3 to -3. You should also have a descriptor for what each level means: e.g., +3 could be beneficial for the British Empire if you were doing your timeline from the perspective of the British. -3 might be harmful to British Empire. Write a short blurb for each event explaining why you gave it each score. 


5.  Timeline with Attitude Assignment – revised dates. Start working on it Thurs. April 9. Due Thurs. April 16.

CHY4U_Unit2_Timeline_with_Attitude_2020_revised (note: this has been revised and simplified for online learning – it is somewhat different from the assignment/rubric in your handouts)

You will choose one perspective from which to make a timeline-with-attitude for events of this unit so far. Do not use any dates past 1789 or before 1650. Below I will indicate which unit topics to focus on for which perspective (showing you that you don’t have to have done all the unit activities to do well on this assignment)

Perspective Choices: 

  1. American colonist (7 Years War, Enlightenment, Slave Trade)
  2. British government official (7 Years War, Enlightenment, Slave Trade, possibly Early Industrialization)
  3. British military official or soldier (7 Years War, Enlightenment, possibly Early Industrialization, Haiti)
  4. French military official or soldier (7 Years War, Haiti)
  5. French government official (7 Years War, Enlightenment, Code Noir, Haiti)
  6. Indigenous person in North America (7 Years War – ** caution – there are not 5 events – you’d have to do some research)
  7. Industrial inventor (Early Industrialization)
  8. British skilled worker (Early Industrialization)
  9. British unskilled industrial worker (Early Industrialization)
  10. Enslaved American (Early Industrialization, Enlightenment, Slave Trade)
  11. Indian cotton farmer or handloom weaver (Early Industrialization, 7 Years War)
  12. British East India Company official or merchant (7 Years War, Early Industrialization )
  13. Catholic Church official (Enlightenment, Code Noir, 7 Years War)

You will pick 5 events from the unit (you shouldn’t have to research too much – the content of the unit should provide the info) that belong on YOUR timeline. In other words, choose events that are important to someone with your perspective; they should be events that brought progress to you or decline to you. It would be nice to have events both above and below the line.

You will carefully label the scale of your timeline. It should not just be +3 progress, -3 decline. You need to set criteria for what each level on the scale means.

Here is a portion of a sample from Ms. G based on unit 1 events.


Please note that this sample timeline includes visuals/images. I have removed this requirement from the timeline for online learning. Do NOT include visuals.

Students often use Prezi for timelines. Word is acceptable. PPT (Google slides) is generally not a great choice but I’ll accept it at this special time in our lives:) If you want to make a timeline by hand drawing/writing and then taking a photo of it, I’m fine with that. See the video posted on Google classroom for a Prezi sample and a handmade sample. The video has some additional hints on using HTC terminology as well.

– Ms. G


Paragraph: After you create your timeline, choose one event from it that would serve as a turning point for your chosen perspective. Note that a turning point is a change in:

  • the direction of change
  • the pace of change

To show change you must be able to explain the difference between before and after. You need to be very explicit in explaining the before/after difference.

Your paragraph should have a clear topic sentence, 3 point/example/arguments and a summarizing concluding sentence. It should be written in third person.

If you have done any research beyond the unit topics, please cite your sources in embedded citations.

CHY4U_Turning_Point_Paragraph_Outline (use this to structure your paragraph)

The last date to hand in this assignment is Mon. April 20 for mid-term mark consideration.


6. Revised date: Fri. April 17: Cultural Exchanges (New title: French Absolutism) – this topic is simply important to help set the background for the French Revolution! You may skim over it but pay attention to what happened to the nobles.

In this last topic of the unit we will explore the intended and unintended consequences of cross cultural exchanges. We’ll explore French absolutism under Louis XIV. Because of time restrictions, we’ll skip how Peter the Great of Russia adapted absolutism to his own uses.


Absolutism: think back to what we learned about absolute monarchy at the very beginning of this unit. It was NOT the kind of government John Locke wanted because there were no limits on the monarch. Also note that both Catherine the Great and Frederick the Great were absolute monarchs, though Frederick had a bit more of an enlightened attitude toward his people.

Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV will serve as our model of an absolute monarch. Characteristics of absolutism include:

  • centralization (replaces decentralized feudalism)
  • uniformity and fixed rules of behaviour
  • standardization
  • development of the state
  • control of power in the hands of the monarch/emperor
  • often based on the theory of divine right (the monarch is given the right to rule by God, NOT the social contract)
  • often goes back to the Roman Empire as a model of stability

In this 1684 engraving of Louis XIV by Pierre Lepautre, he is shown as a Roman Emperor.

Information about the ways Louis used absolutism in France to make the country more centralized can be found in the textbook from pages 75-78 under these headings:

Take notes for each heading.

  • intendants (civil servants)
  • economy
  • armed forces
  • religion
  • Versailles (see this video as well, only until 3:20)
  • social system (role of nobles and others) * most important




There will be no unit 2 test. Please proceed with CCA Step 2 and move to Unit 3 blog page.



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