Unit 2 (2020)

By , March 21, 2017 12:50 pm

Unit 2: 1650-1789

What was worth fighting for?

CHY4U_Unit2_Handouts_2020 (PDF of the unit package)

 

1. Mon. Mar. 9, Tues. Mar. 10, Wed. Mar. 11, Thurs. Mar. 12: Enlightenment

THE AGE OF REASON?

Recommended textbook pages: 83, 146-150

Monday: Jean Calas anecdote – from this story, try to grasp the main concepts of the Enlightenment and what enlightened philosophes thought was worth fighting for.

Jean Calas being broken

 

Locke: read this for context – Locke_handout_shortened

CHY4U_Enlightenment_Mar_2020  (contains list of enlightened characteristics)

Course Culminating Activity: students have now chosen their essay topic. They must begin the research process. Please see CCA step 1 from the CHY4U menu.  It has all the tips, the assignment, the sample, the suggested sources, etc. Step 1 (notes and worksheet) is due on Mon. March 30. Students must find time to do research outside of class time. 

 

Tuesday and Wednesday:

 

PSD Groupings (9 documents) – annotate

Skills: inquiry questions, thesis development, PSD analysis (including annotating)

Political: John Locke, Two Treatises on Government; Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence

Questions:

In what way did Jefferson ‘plagiarize’ Locke?

 

English: Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal; Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792;

The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano

Context for Jonathan Swift (some background on the British in Ireland)

Questions:

Swift was prompted to write by the issue of overpopulation of Ireland. However, he had other things in mind. How did Swift satirize British control over Ireland?

What did Equiano hope the British government would do?

Under what condition did Wollstonecraft believe society would improve?

 

French: Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract; Denis Diderot, Definition of Intolerance; Voltaire, Superstition

The statue of Voltaire on the internal face of the Louvre in Paris

Questions:

To Rousseau, what is the best kind of life? And, if this can’t be lived, what is the best way to preserve as many of the original liberties as possible?

Diderot repeats the word ‘impious’ (blasphemous – against religion) over and over. Why is he using this religious word against the Catholic Church?

What is Voltaire’s big problem with superstition?

 

Rulers (Enlightened Despots): Catherine the Great, Proposals for a New Law Code, 1767; Frederick the Great, Essay on the Forms of Government

Coronation of Catherine II

Questions:

Though considered an enlightened despot, Frederick held almost all the power in Prussia. What does he consider to be the ideal relationship between the ruler and the state?

Catherine spends a lot of time arguing why absolute monarchy is suitable for Russia. How does she justify it?

 

HW: finish annotating any enlightened any PSDs you haven’t read yet. Keep working on your CCA research and note-taking.

PRACTICE

Practice making arguments. Read this and see how you can make it a little bit better by making a sharper topic sentence:

Denis Diderot was one of the main social critics of his time, particularly when it came to the abuses of the Roman Catholic Church. In an article from his multi-volume Encyclopedie called “Intolerance” Diderot portrayed the Catholic Church as hypocritical. In fact, he argued, the Church was intolerant. Diderot and other enlightened philosophes in France held a core belief in freedom of thought; as he said, “Conscience must be enlightened, not constrained.” Neither the state nor the Church should interfere with an individual’s right to his own beliefs and ideas. The problem with the Catholic Church was that it used pacifistic language such as love when in fact it used violent means to achieve its goals. According to Diderot, “Education, persuasion, and prayer, these are the only legitimate means of spreading the faith.” How hypocritical, he implied, was the Church for using violence, hatred, and sowing of division to spread Christianity. These two simple quotes portray Diderot as a hard-edged writer willing to speak his truth to power.

 

Here’s an interesting little tidbit on Diderot and Catherine – you decide if it made her enlightened???

Denis Diderot and Catherine the Great of Russia came together out of necessity. Diderot’s Encyclopedie was heavily censored by the Roman Catholic Church and the French government. The pope even threatened excommunication of purchasers of it. (World History, p. 449). At the time in the 1700s, France was still relatively feudal in its social structure, though people like Diderot from the upper middle classes had a certain amount of influence in intellectual circles. Diderot was so involved in the Enlightenment that he was chased by the police, spied on, and even had to sell his works to the Empress of Russia, Catherine the Great, in order to save them from government confiscation.  Catherine, seeing herself as an enlightened ruler, allowed him to retain the books and she paid him a yearly salary. He even went to visit her in Russia for six months in 1773 (Glencoe World History, p. 557). Catherine and Diderot: an likely pair but a duo who found mutual benefit in each other.

 

Thursday: Did western Europe have a monopoly on enlightenment?

Western_World_Monopoloy_on_Enlightenment

How do Akbar and Suleiman compare?

What sites should you consult?

 

2. Fri. Mar. 13, Mon. Mar. 23, Tues. Mar. 24, Wed. Mar. 25: Slavery and Resistance 

 

Viscitiudes

Vicissitudes from Jason deCaires Taylor’s website

Minds On: What do you think this underwater sculpture is meant to represent?

Skills: historical perspective, inquiry questions

terminology: slave vs. enslaved person

 

Fri.: Minds On: Slave Trade interactive map, reading by Ms. G from The Slave Ship

Students came up with good, curious, deep inquiry questions about the interactive slave trade map.

CHY4U_Slave_Trade_2019 (PPT) – overview of the how the slave trade worked, especially the idea of triangular trade. Triangular trade can also be found in the textbook on page 106.

Triangular trade

 

HW: take notes on methods of resistance by enslaved persons from pages 108 to 111 in the textbook.

 

Have a great March Break!!! Stay safe and healthy. 

                                                                             – Ms. G

 

Hello everyone. Welcome to the new world of learning. I will continue to update the blog if you’d like to follow along. Please continue your CCA research. You may submit your work via email or google doc sharing. Please include photos of your hand-written notes.

Mon. March 23: Minds On: Back to your earlier definition of what the word “fight” means in “what is worth fighting for?” Now we are adding the idea of resistance. What is the difference between fighting and resisting? (please, really think about this difference). 

Activity: using pages 108-111 in textbook – take the methods of resistance to slavery  and put them into categories (such as physical, spiritual, etc.). Photos of pages below. 

Normally at this time Ms. G emphasizes how some historians used to dismiss things such as working slowly or breaking tools as evidence of the slaves’ laziness. Over time, historians have opened up their perspectives to recognize that the enslaved people were doing whatever they could to survive a brutal life, resist conditions imposed upon them and assert their humanity.

Websites for your interest:

Ted  Talk (drumming banned – for your interest only)

Slave Resistance at Work (Port Cities Bristol – just FYI)

 

Tues. March 24: Minds On: What is the purpose of a law code?

possible answers: keep order, restrict people, give people rights

Image result

Code Noir, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_Noir

 

Activity (answers may be shared with Ms. G to demonstrate your learning):

  1. Fill in CHY 4U Abolitionism Code Noir chart
  2. Use the PSD in the purple box on page 109 of the textbook (see photos above) – it is the actual Code Noir (excerpts).

Note: the preamble (intro) says that God approves of these laws. Therefore, it’s as if God was saying to the enslaved people of the French colonies that they MUST obey the laws in the Code Noir. Also note, this code applied to the French colonies only.

2. How enlightened was Code Noir? (0-10) Explain your rating.

3. How generous did the French government think the code was? (0-10) Explain your rating.

4. Ultimately, in the unit so far, how enlightened is the enlightenment? Think about the paradox or the gap between ideas and reality. Please write a sharp, concise yet precise two-sentence answer.

HW: finish Code Noir worksheet and share answers. Work on CCA step 1. It is due Mon. March 30 (may be submitted by email or via sharing google doc – please include photos of hand-written notes). See CCA Step 1 page and tips. 

 

3. Wed. Mar. 25 and Thurs. Mar. 26: Innovation and Origins of Industrialization (and Haiti)

An engraving of a Spinning Jenny by T. E. Nicholson (1835)

Spinning jenny, one of the machines used in industrialization: http://spartacus-educational.com/TEXjenny.htm

 

RP collapse

Rana Plaza collapse 2013, Bangladesh, signalling the pitfalls of our industrialization. Rana Plaza was full of garment manufacturing workshops and the building was obviously not safe for it. https://cleanclothes.org/safety/ranaplaza

Wed. March 25 and Thurs. March 26:

Minds On: How is society affected by the pace of technological change? Think about our own times: do you think we live in a time of fast-paced technological change? If so, what influence does it have on people’s lives, work, the economy, etc.?

Skill: Progress and decline – the inverse relationship between groups. Note that progress and decline are aspects of continuity and change.

Introduction to topic:

Industrialization began in Britain in the late 1700s. It began there, rather than elsewhere, for various reasons which are somewhat outside the scope of this activity. However, what’s crucial to know is that many people invested money in new technologies that would eventually power factories to produce a lot more than before. The demand for goods was high because the population was growing.

Before the industrial revolution British society was largely rural and the economy was based on agriculture. Power came from wind, water, animals and humans. Some farming families also worked in what was called ‘cottage industries’, meaning they engaged in a small trade at home to supplement their farm income. For instance, they might spin wool from their sheep. A middle man would help them get the product to a market. But work was at home and followed the regular schedule of daily life on a farm.

Change came…

During the industrial revolution urban areas grew faster as people moved to live nearby their sources of employment, factories. The source of power moved to coal and steam. Coal powered factories and mills where large numbers of workers gathered under one roof were new developments. Workers were now paid a wage.

The woolen industry had been in existence for a long time in Britain. However, cotton was becoming increasingly popular. Britain did not, of course, grow cotton – it grows in a warmer climate. But some of Britain’s colonies and trading partners did grow cotton. Thus one cannot separate the issues of colonies, slavery and industrialization. This will become very apparent as you make your way through the chart. So will the fact that certain types of workers benefited more than others. The world was changing and people’s lives were changing.

  1. Read Early Inventions of Industrialization first. It gives a lot of important background. Early_Industrialization Then, …

2. Fill in the chart: Early Industrialization Activity – who was helped and who was hurt by each innovation? The possible answers are indicated for you at the top of the activity. If you don’t have your paper booklet, you can find a PDF version of it at the top of the unit 2 page.

Progress vocabulary: benefit, evolve, develop, advance, improve, innovate, change…

Decline vocabulary: regress, recess, downfall, end, collapse, slide, devolve, suffer …

Please share your answers with Ms. G so she can see if you’re doing it right.

3. There is a list of websites at the bottom of the document (copied below).  They contain images related to early industrialization. Please visit some of the sites. If you have any uncertainties about the topic of early industrialization, the third document (oup) gives a fabulous overview of EVERYTHING.

 

Explore some of the sites of early industrialization in England:

http://www.derbyshireuk.net/cromford.html

https://www.visitpeakdistrict.com/things-to-do/attractions/industrial-heritage

https://www.oup.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/58031/Oxford-Big-Ideas-Geography-History-9-ch5-Industrial-revolution.pdf (very thorough overview of industrialization)

http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/371 (world’s first iron bridge)

http://www.channel4.com/programmes/walking-through-history/on-demand/54892-002 (Tony Robinson’s Walking Through History – Derwent Valley)

FYI: Headlines  – The more things change the more they stay the same?

Job Loss from AI: (Forbes)

Cotton farming today: cotton (End Uzbek Cotton Crimes)

 

Fri. March 26:

St. Domingue / Haiti:

Toussaint L’Ouverture

 

Le Marron Inconnu (the unknown slave, Port au Prince, Haiti, 1967)

St. Domingue, the Caribbean island that brought the most wealth to the French Empire.

It may seem strange to jump from early industrialization to the Haitian Revolutions. However, it makes sense in terms of returning to the ideals of enlightenment and resistance to enslavement. As well, don’t forget that the Code Noir would have been the document that governed the lives of enslaved people in this French Caribbean colony.

To understand the Haitian Revolutions (yes, more than one revolution) context please read the two documents below and answer these questions on BIG ideas:

CHY4U Social Hierarchy in StDomingue,

  • where do you expect the major class conflicts to be?

Haiti_Slave_Revolution_that_Defeated_3_Empires

  • why did three empires try to so hard to defeat St. Domingue/Haiti?
  • why were the Haitians able to prevail?

 

Then, to get more details, read about Toussaint L’Ouverture and the rebellions in St. Domingue/Haiti (textbook pages 195-197). Note that the origins of the first revolution (starting in 1791) are quite complicated and resulted in the freeing of the slaves. The second one (ending in 1804) was the fight for independence from France.

Visit Haitian Revolution (Black Past) or The Haitian  Revolution  (PBS – Africans in America) if you want short overviews of the Haitian Revolutions. There is a Crash Course History video (12 minutes) as well. In it there is some reference to the French Revolution (which we haven’t learned about yet) but you should be able to get the big picture without this fore-knowledge.

Wrap Up: to demonstrate your understanding of the Haitian Revolutions and how they fit into this unit (what is worth fighting for?), please create a small mind-map or word web that shows all the connections between unit topics/concepts/ideals and the Haitian Revolutions. Share with Ms. G on google docs. Google “how to make a mind map in google docs” for directions. Or, draw a mind-map and share a photo of it.

HW: CCA notes and current event/historical context worksheet due Monday. Share with Ms. G on Google docs and include photos of your hand-written notes.

 

4. Mon. March 30, Tues. March 31, Wed. April 1: Consequences of Exploration and Colonization  – 7 Years War

CCA Step 1 due today!

Map showing participants in the Seven Years Wars. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Years%27_War

 

Skills: HTC – causes and consequences  (intended and unintended, direct, indirect, long-term, medium-term, short-term), historical perspectives

Monday and Tuesday:

key terms:

  • mercantilism (the economic policy in which countries seek to export rather than import, protect their own markets and industries, and make profit from their colonies)
    • think of it like a pie: at the time, people believed there was a limited supply of wealth. Each country had its own slice of the pie. The only way to increase the size of its slice of pie was to get it from another country, often through war

  • global conflict
    • thus, it should make sense that what began as a minor war in Europe (for reasons that are not even very important to us) became a global conflict about getting more pie for each country (empire)!!! It lasted from 1756-1763.

Activity:

Annotate PSDs 1 to 7 indicating cause or consequence (or both) and what kind: intended or unintended, direct or indirect, long-term, medium-term or short-term.

I’ve included some questions to help make sure you understand each document. Feel free to email me if you have questions about particular documents.

Seven_Years_War_psds

1 The state of the English colonies, 1755 from the Maryland Gazette, originally published in London’s Gentlemen’s Magazine

Remember, this is pre-American Revolution. Virginia is one of the 13 American colonies controlled by Britain. 

What are the advantages of Virginia in terms of agriculture, source of labour, government, education?

Who envies how awesome Virginia is? How does this relate to slices of the pie?

Painting: British victory at Plassey in Bengal, on June 23rd, 1757

Note: Bengal was an Indian state. The British East India Company was established to increase trade between Britain and India.

Who fought whom in this 1757 battle?

How did the role of the  British East India Company expand beyond trade after this battle?

 

The Battle of Quebec, 1759

Recall your Canadian history lessons from junior high: The French came to Quebec first. Then, as the British increased their power and territory in North America they wanted Quebec, too. Eventually, the French lost other territory in North America, too. Also note that the painting was made years after the event. 

Even though Wolfe (the British General) dies, how is he portrayed in the painting?

Whose slices of pie increase/decrease as a result of the Battle of Quebec?

 

Minavavana, a Chippewa chief, addressing trader Alexander Henry, as recorded by Henry, 1761

Note: Chippewa were one of many different indigenous peoples in North America in the 1700s. Indigenous peoples had diverse relationships with American colonists and the British and French in North America.

How many years before this letter had the English conquered the French?

In the beginning of the letter Minavavana suggests that Chippewa have been allies of _______________.

How does Minavavana suggest that, normally, good relations can be established after conflict?

Why did he make an exception this time?

Why would it be important for both indigenous people and the British or French to have each other as allies in North America?

 

The Attack of Manilla, October 1762

Note: Philippines was a Spanish colony. Spain was friendly with France, not Britain, at this time. 

How did Philippines go back and forth to different ‘possessors’? How does this reflect slices of the pie?

What was the key factor in Britain’s success in this sub-battle of the Seven Years’ War?

Royal Proclamation of 1763

Note: the British took control of French territorial possessions following the Battle of Quebec (1759). These territories were not just in Quebec, but also included part of the now-US, including the Ohio River Valley. In addition, recall that at the time of this proclamation (law), the British controlled the American colonies. Through this law the British hoped to improve relations between American colonists and indigenous people west of the Mississippi River. So they created a line, the proclamation line.

Lands west of the proclamation line were reserved for whom?

Who is forbidden to settle there or make any other use of the western lands?

Why would some American colonists be offended by this new British rule?

Why would the  British feel this was a fair law?

How does this Proclamation relate to slices of the pie?

 

The Quebec Act, 1774

Note: the Seven Years War, known as the French and Indian War in the American colonies, was already over (1763) by the time of the Quebec Act (1774). Also, it’s important to remember that Britain was a Protestant country whereas Quebec had been Catholic. Most, not all, American colonists were also Protestant.

What did this act grant to Catholics in Quebec?

Why would the Protestant British want to do this?

Which part of the act particularly worried American colonists? Why?

How does the cartoon demonstrate this feeling?

 

Wed. April 1:

Now that we have learned about the different events of the Seven Years’ War, we will practice putting them onto a Timeline with Attitude. [Remember, we did a timeline with attitude in unit 1 using different perspectives on the Japanese edicts against Christianity.]

This document may remind you of key dates/events for your timeline, though there are others from the PSDs: CHY4U_Unit2_Seven_Years_War_Timeline

Perspectives for Timeline with Attitude

  1. British
  2. French
  3. Indian (South Asian)
  4. Native People
  5. American colonists

Instructions: pick one perspective. Create a timeline with attitude with at least 4 events on it. Make sure your scale is labeled from +3 to -3. You should also have a descriptor for what each level means: e.g., +3 could be beneficial for the British Empire if you were doing your timeline from the perspective of the British. -3 might be harmful to British Empire. Write a short blurb for each event explaining why you gave it each score. Share your timeline with Ms. G.

 

5.  Timeline with Attitude Assignment

CHY4U_Unit2_Timeline_with_Attitude_sem2_19-20

You will choose one perspective from which to make a timeline with attitude for events of this unit so far. Do not use any dates past 1789 or before 1650. The purpose of the task is to determine if you can see how interrelated the topics are.

Perspective Choices: 

  1. American colonist
  2. British government
  3. British military official or soldier
  4. French military official or soldier
  5. French government
  6. Indigenous person in North America
  7. Industrial inventor
  8. British skilled worker
  9. British unskilled industrial worker
  10. Enslaved American
  11. Indian cotton producer
  12. British East India Company official or merchant
  13. Catholic Church official

You will pick 6 events from the unit (or others from your research) that belong on YOUR timeline.

You will carefully label the scale of your timeline. It should not just be +3 progress, -3 decline. You need to set criteria for what each level on the scale means.

Here is a portion of a sample from Ms. G based on unit 1 events.

Timeline-with-Attitude-Sample

Students often use Prezi for timelines. Word is acceptable. PPT (Google slides) is generally not a great choice but I’ll accept it at this special time in our lives:) If you want to make a timeline by hand drawing/writing and then taking a photo of it, I’m fine with that.

– Ms. G

 

Image choices: Please do not use images that were used in the course materials. Please do not choose decorative images. Choose images directly related to the event and from that time or referring to that time. Cite image sources.

 

Paragraph: After you create your timeline, choose one event from it that would serve as a turning point for your chosen perspective. Note that a turning point is a change in:

  • the direction of change
  • the pace of change

To show change you must be able to explain the difference between before and after. You need to be very explicit in explaining the before/after difference.

Your paragraph should have a clear topic sentence, 3 point/example/arguments and a summarizing concluding sentence. It should be written in third person.

If you have research beyond your timeline, please cite your sources in embedded citations.

 

6. Cultural Exchanges

In this last topic of the unit we will explore the intended and unintended consequences of cross cultural exchanges. First, we’ll explore French absolutism under Louis XIV. Then, we’ll see how Peter the Great of Russia adapted absolutism to his own uses.

Minds On: think of various examples of current day cultural exchanges. A classic example would be the popularity of sushi in Canada.

Absolutism: think back to what we learned about absolute monarchy at the very beginning of this unit. It was NOT the kind of government John Locke wanted because there were no limits on the monarch. Also note that both Catherine the Great and Frederick the Great were absolute monarchs, though Frederick had a bit more of an enlightened attitude toward his people.

Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV will serve as our model of an absolute monarch. Characteristics of absolutism include:

  • centralization (replaces decentralized feudalism)
  • uniformity and fixed rules of behaviour
  • standardization
  • development of the state
  • control of power in the hands of the monarch/emperor
  • often based on the theory of divine right (the monarch is given the right to rule by God, NOT the social contract)
  • often goes back to the Roman Empire as a model of stability

In this 1684 engraving of Louis XIV by Pierre Lepautre, he is shown as a Roman Emperor.
https://www.rct.uk/collection/617003/louis-xiv-as-a-roman-emperor-holding-a-plan-of-a-fortified-town

Information about the ways Louis used absolutism in France to make the country more centralized can be found in the textbook from pages 75-78 under these headings:

Take notes for each heading.

  • intendants (civil servants)
  • economy
  • armed forces
  • religion
  • Versailles (see this video as well, only until 3:20)
  • social system (role of nobles and others)

 

Absolutism_France_Russia_PSDs

 

Peter the Great

Video (10 minutes)

 

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